Promotional communication process

Communication is the process of transmitting data, ideas, information from a source (transmitter) to a receiver using a communication channel. All these elements form a communication system.

Marketing communication is the process where two sides try to influence each other, using symbols, in order to achieve their final objectives:
The process of communication is depicted in the following scheme:
process of communication

The transmitter – is the company that want to send a message to the target market so that it receives a favorable answer from them: To assure a high credibility, the company employs public personalities or opinion leaders to effectively deliver the message. They are the message source and are widely used in advertising.

Message encoding – The intended meaning of the message, the idea the transmitter wants to deliver in encoded in symbols, text, images, sounds so that it's easily received by the customer. In the encoding process, the transmitter must take into account the public target characteristics, so that it doesn't understand the message inaccurately.

The message – is transmitted through a communication channel to the receiver and has a certain transmitted meaning. On this act various perturbing factors existing at the communication channel level and are independent of the transmitter or receiver. These perturbing factors are called interferences or channel noise and are usually a consequence of the message intersecting other promotional messages.

Message decoding – the message is received having a certain received meaning, that can be different from the original emitted meaning due to the channel noise.

The understood meaning – results from decoding the received message according to the interpretation the receiver gives to the symbols the transmitter used to encode the message.

Receiver – is that part of the target market where the message is focused. It can be a person, a group or an organization.

Feedback – is the answering reaction of the receiver that can be a positive, negative or indifferent. The purpose of promotional communication is that the public response to be favorable, with a clear finality: purchasing the products and recovery, by this mean, of the expenses involved in the promotional activities.


In the communication process, the transmitter must make sure that the understood meaning is as close as possible to the intended meaning. Otherwise, the message can be distorted and might not generate the desired effects, representing a total waste of resources.